Fleirspråkleg medietilstand i Israel

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Legg att eit svar

Epostadressa di blir ikkje synleg.

Av: Vegard T. Foseide, styreleiar

Israel er nok meir kjent for religion, historie og konflikt for oss nordmenn, enn det er kjent for språk og språkmangfald. Så lat oss ta ein liten tur innom språksituasjonen og språket i media der.


Mange kjenner nok til den historia om det nesten daude språket hebraisk, som vart gjenoppliva på slutten av 1800-talet. Hebraisk var inntil då lite brukt som talespråk, men mykje brukt skriftleg i religiøs samanheng. Moderne hebraisk vart eit offisielt språk i det britisk-styrte Palestina i 1921 (ilag med engelsk og arabisk), og vart så i 1948 eit offisielt språk i den nyoppretta staten Israel (ilag med arabisk).

Hebraisk, arabisk og… russisk?!
Hebraisk og arabisk er offisielle språk, der fleirtalsspråket hebraisk blir brukt overalt, og minoritetsspråket arabisk ein del på offentlege skilt og i viktig offentleg informasjon og det offentlege tek arabisk på alvor. Men dei fleste israelarar som har hebraisk som morsmål, lærer ikkje arabisk noko særleg godt, då dei har berre eit par år med “ obligatorisk sidemål”, sjølvsagt i tillegg til den allestadsnærverande engelsken.

Åtvaringar på eit lokk over ein optisk kabel skrivne på engelsk, hebraisk, arabisk og russisk. Foto: CC Wikimedia Commons

Om lag 20% av innbyggarane har arabisk som morsmål, men meir uventa er kanskje at om lag ein like stor del av av israelarane snakkar russisk, grunna stor innvandring av russiske jødar frå tidlegare Sovjetunionen. Og dette syner att i medielandskapet

Kringkasting
Dei fleste fjernsynskanalane er på hebraisk, men det finst éin offentleg fjernsynskanal, Kanal 33, som bruker utelukkande arabisk. Det er òg ein offentleg kanal, IBA News, som sender på fleire språk, men hovudsakleg på engelsk og russisk. Når det gjeld kommersielle kanalar, er det éin stor russiskspråkleg, Israel Plus, som har vore på lufta i 15 år. Ein tilsvarande arabisk kanal har det gått tråare med å få i stand, då dei fleste arabiskspråklege tyr til kanalar frå nabolanda, og er såleis ikkje så kommersielt interessante. Men Hala TV, ein kommersiell arabisk kanal, kom på lufta i 2012, og er framleis i gang.

Når det gjeld offentleg radio, er det ein mykje lik situasjon som på TV, der det meste er på hebraisk, men det finst éin arabiskspråkleg stasjon, Reshet Dalet, og éin der det hovudsakleg blir brukt russisk og engelsk, nemleg Reka.

Engelsk og hebraisk teksting på fjernsyn. Foto: skjermdump frå youtube.com.

Teksting
Det mest spesielle med mediespråksituasjon i Israel, er dette med teksting av innhaldet. I hovudsendeflata til dei offentlege kanalane, blir det tilbydd teksting på hebraisk og arabisk i tillegg til ein del engelsk og russisk. Dei kommersielle fjernsynskanalane er pålagte å sende ein viss del av programma sine på arabisk og russisk, eller alternativt omsetje og tekste programma til desse språka.

Det har heller ikkje vore uvanleg med teksting på fleire språk på same tid(!), slik at ein til dømes høyrer hebraisk tale med engelsk og arabisk teksting. I dag er det mest vanleg at sjåarane sjølv vel kva for teksting dei vil ha, men det er likevel fascinerande å sjå føre seg noko liknande i ein norsk kontekst. Konstant nynorsk eller bokmål teksting på NRK? Eller å kunne velje kva for språk ein vil ha teksta Dagsrevyen eller favoritttserien på?

Uroleg framtid
Alt er ikkje så positivt med tanke på det relativt godt ivaretekne språkmangfaldet i Israel framover. Det kjem stadig forslag frå dei mest nasjonalistiske politikarane om å innskrenke bruken av arabisk på offentlege domene som til dømes vegskilt og stadnamn. Og ikkje minst lovforslag om å gjere hebraisk til det einaste offisielle språket. Men enn så lenge er det eit skikkeleg språkleg mediemangfald i Israel.

Kjelder: Store Norske Leksikon, Wikipedia